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AD-HOC NETWORKS....... RRS feed

  • Question

  • Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means "for this purpose". It generally signifies a solution that has been custom designed for a specific problem, is non-generalizable, and cannot be adapted to other purposes. Examples include a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol or a purpose-specific equation. Ad hoc can also have connotations of a makeshift solution, inadequate planning, or improvised events. In technical papers the orthography varies to AdHoc, adhoc, ad-hoc, and other derivates.

     

    In computer networking, ad hoc is a network connection method which is most often associated with wireless devices. The connection is established for the duration of one session and requires no base station. Instead, devices discover others within range to form a network for those computers. Devices may search for target nodes that are out of range by flooding the network with broadcasts that are forwarded by each node. Connections are possible over multiple nodes (multihop ad hoc network). Routing protocols then provide stable connections even if nodes are moving around. Sony's PlayStation Portable uses ad hoc connections for wireless multiplayer gaming, as does the Nintendo DS (although Nintendo does not officially use the term). Technically, all of the Game Boys used this method for linking up to each other via wired (Game Link Cable) or wireless (Game Boy Color IR Port).

    See IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth, or ultra-wide band. The alternative is infrastructure, with a base station that manages the network for its range. The theory behind ad hoc networks falls within the Distributed Transient Network-paradigm.

    The term ad hoc network can also refer to an independent basic service set (IBSS).

     

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANet) is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links – the union of which form an arbitrary topology. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily; thus, the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. Such a network may operate in a standalone fashion, or may be connected to the larger Internet.

    Mobile ad-hoc networks became a popular subject for research as laptops and 802.11/Wi-Fi wireless networking became widespread in the mid- to late 1990s. Many of the academic papers evaluate protocols and abilities assuming varying degrees of mobility within a bounded space, usually with all nodes within a few hops of each other, and usually with nodes sending data at a constant rate. Different protocols are then evaluated based on the packet drop rate, the overhead introduced by the routing protocol, and other measures.

    The Children's Machine One Laptop per Child program hopes to develop a cheap laptop for mass distribution (>1 million at a time) to developing countries for education. The laptops will use ad-hoc wireless mesh networking to develop their own communications network out of the box.

    Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANet) are a form of MANets used for communication among vehicles and between vehicles and roadside equipment.

    Intelligent Vehicular AdHoc Network (InVANET) is a kind of Intelligence in Vehicle(s) which provide multiple autonomic intelligent solutions to make automotive vehicles to behave in intelligent manner during vehicle-to-vehicle collisions, accidents, drunken driving etc. InVANET uses WiFi IEEE 802.11 b/g and WiMAX IEEE 802.16 for providing easy, accurate, effective communication between multiple vehicles on dynamic mobility. Effective measures to track the automotive vehicles, media download /upload, conference between vehicles are also preferred. InVANET can also be applied for artillery vehicles during warfare / Battlefield / Peace operations.

    Wednesday, September 19, 2007 1:13 PM