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  • included people, processes and technology interecting.
    Wednesday, October 31, 2007 6:11 PM

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  • thnx 4 info..........

    Friday, November 2, 2007 9:03 AM
  • cool!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!11

     

    Sunday, November 4, 2007 1:41 AM
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    A Framework for Enterprise Systems Engineering Processes

    Key words: Enterprise Systems Engineering, Evolution, Variety, Selection, Process, Enterprise Architecture,

    Capabilities

    ICSSEA 2006 Swarz & Derosa

    2

    1. INTRODUCTION

    In 1999, the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) published their Processes for Engineering a System. This has

    become an American National Standard (ANSI/EIA 632), and is consistent with the approach being taken by the

    International Standards Organization’s standard ISO 15288. In addition, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics

    Engineers (IEEE) standard 1220 represents an application of EIA 632 to the electronics and electrical industry. The

    INCOSE systems engineering process, shown in Figure 1, is based on EIA 632. Thus, the world has converged on a

    systems engineering standard. Although widely adopted and accepted, this model may prove to be inadequate for

    today’s enterprise environment, where no single management entity has control over the whole.

    Consider, for example, the World-Wide Web (WWW).

    Who is in charge of the Web? Who determines its

    requirements and makes its products? Who funds and

    schedules the rollout of its components? The WWW

    may be the best example of an “enterprise” as this paper

    envisions it. It is much more than just the satisfaction of

    a user requirement within budget and time constraints

    (and with the appropriate level of quality, dependability,

    etc.). The WWW is governed (mainly) by the “World-

    Wide Web Consortium” (W3C), which is a collection

    of “stakeholders” (developers, users, etc.), who have an

    interest in its operation and evolution who collaborate

    to produce the standards by which the WWW operates.

    Could the current INCOSE systems engineering model

    suffice in this environment?

    The INCOSE model shows how to transform needs into

    a system. It includes a total of thirteen processes in four

    areas. For example, the System Design area defines

    basic tasks, such as Define the System Objectives,

    Requirements, Evolve Design and Operations Concepts,

    Figure 1. ANSI/EIA 632

    Select a Baseline, Verify that the Baseline Satisfies the User, and Iterate the Process through Lower Level Analysis.

    At The MITRE Corporation (a not-for-profit Federally-Funded Research and Development Center), we have been

    interested in extending systems engineering into the enterprise context (DeRosa 2005, Kuras and White 2005).

    But what's missing? Even the simplest systems interoperate with and are interdependent with other systems in the

    broader enterprise. Their development processes follow organizational vision, goals, and governance, necessarily

    changing as political and financial environments change. Their requirements change as the people who operate them

    adapt the processes for their usage. They evolve as technology evolves and matures. Traditional Systems

    Engineering (TSE) does not naturally account for these complex, adaptive influences. Thus, we consider Enterprise

    Systems Engineering (ESE) to be an augmentation of Traditional Systems Engineering (TSE) with people, processes,

    and technology, subject to external (“environmental”) influences.

    We can represent systems engineering in the enterprise

    context as shown in Figure 2. The left-hand side of the

    drawing indicates that any system under development is

    embedded in a network, and the right-hand side of the

    drawing indicates that, in developing any system, we

    must consider the people, processes and technology that

    make up the system as well as its environmental

    stresses.

    Figure 2. People, Processes, and Technology Interacting

    ICSSEA 2006 Swarz & Derosa

    3

    2. ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    2-1 A New Discipline

    The burgeoning discipline of Enterprise Systems Engineering (ESE) is consequently developing to deal with

    complex adaptive systems. ESE extends the TSE discipline and processes in new and different ways. Although the

    ESE state-of-the-art is still quite immature, the interest and potential benefit of developing such a discipline is

    extraordinarily high because of the pervasive nature of the internet, wireless communication, ubiquitous computing,

    intelligent agents, non-hierarchical control, etc.

    We define an enterprise not as a business entity, nor a very large system, nor even as a system-of-systems, but an

    entity arising from taking a completely different perspective suggested by these complex behavior patterns. It is not

    simply a matter of scale. We consider an enterprise to be a collection of systems whose operational capabilities are

    inextricably intertwined with considerations of people, processes, and technology, whose boundaries are often

    imprecise, and which can often be characterized by a set of special, additional properties, such as emergent behavior,

    non-determinism, and environmental dependencies. ESE also considers the entire environment in which the

    system(s) must operate, including, but not limited to, the human-machine interface, the governance structure,

    maintenance and support, etc. The architecture of the enterprise and both its explicit requirements and implicit

    potential capabilities will evolve and emerge as trends in technology, scope of the enterprise, the aggregate user base,

    and other factors evolve over time.

    Emergent behavior occurs when a collection of systems operate in an environment that enables different, often more

    complex, behaviors than could have been predicted by observing their individual characteristics. Thus, an

    enterprise’s behavior is often unpredictable and may represent a new level of the system's evolution. The challenge

    to the enterprise systems engineer is to exploit these new, emergent capabilities for the user community’s benefit.

    The number of interactions in an enterprise increases exponentially with the number of systems, thus potentially

    allowing for many new and subtle capabilities and behavior patterns to emerge in non-deterministic ways. The

    challenge to the enterprise systems engineer is to characterize and constrain the enterprise’s complex behavior so

    that its evolution, while not predictable, is controllable.

    The environment of the enterprise includes not only the systems of which it is composed, but the people (i.e.,

    organizations), processes (e.g., governance and standards), and technology that surround it and profoundly effect its

    operation and evolution. The challenge to the enterprise systems engineer is to understand and adapt to these

    environmental dependencies so that the enterprise can evolve in response to changes in its environment while

    remaining stable and controllable.

    2-2 Variation, Interaction, and Selection in Complex Adaptive Systems

    If we are to treat an enterprise as a complex adaptive system, we must take into account that variation provides the

    “raw material.” Consider some well-known examples: VHS vs. Betamax, PC vs. Macintosh, MS Windows vs. Linux,

    Blu-ray vs. HD-DVD, etc. Variation brings innovative strategies into the enterprise which take the form of new

    technologies or new processes for doing things that serve enterprise needs. Variation increases the choices available

    to the enterprise, and more choices increase complexity. In most situations variation is healthy for the enterprise and

    can be exploited.

    Interaction patterns shape the events in which members of a complex system become directly involved and provides

    the opportunities that lead to creation and destruction of varieties. Interaction patterns help determine what will be

    successful and help shape the dynamics of the interaction patterns themselves.

    Finally, selection can be employed to promote healthy adaptation. This involves making decisions on which

    strategies should be proliferated and which eliminated.

    Friday, November 30, 2007 7:32 PM